The Kanshi

The kanshi is not used much now in Japan.
There are many people who read the kanji "kanshi" as "eto" and use it instead of the twelve horary signs.
I will introduce the kanshi that have become less familiar to the Japanese.
[ Ancient civilization of the world ]
We learn about the world's four great ancient civilizations at school.
One is the Mesopotamian civilization that was born in Mesopotamia (now part of Iraq) around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
One is the Egyptian civilization developed in the Egyptian Nile River Basin.
One is the Indus civilization flourished around the Indus River in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
One is the Yangtze civilization that occurred in the Yangtze River Basin of China
In China it continued to develop further after this ancient civilization.
I think that China had been the advanced country of the world's best civilization in the past.
Paper was first made in China, and a paper used in about 150 BC has been found.
It was also China that gunpowder was invented.
Various other goods and equipment were invented in China.
The calendar is also invented.
(The calendar has been independently invented in various countries.)

[ Transmission of culture and technology from China to Japan ]
Unfortunately, Japan was not an advanced country of civilization in ancient times.
For this reason, in Japan, when Nara had a capital, we actively adopted China's advanced technologies and cultures.
Some were introduced directly from China and others were introduced via Korea.
For example we adopted a character called kanji.
We also adopted fude(brush), sumi(ink) and paper to write it.
Iron production technology was also introduced.
In addition Buddhism is a religion born in India, which was also introduced from China and Korea.

[ The Kanshi ]
"The kanshi has been developed in China."
The kanshi consist of the jikkan and the junishi.
The jikkan are the following ten words.


The junishi are the following twelve words.


By combining these we can make the following sixty words.


We use these words like a number.
For example, this year is 2018, and when it is represented by the kanshi, it is year of bo-jutsu.
Last year is the year of tei-yu, next year will be year of ki-gai.
Since it will go around in 60 years, 1958 before 60 years and 2078 after 60 years will also be year of bo-jutsu.
1966 was the year of Hinoe-uma.
In 1966, the number of births is reduced by about 25% compared to the years before and after.
There was a superstition like that a woman born in year of hinoe-uma was rough and ruined a man who became her husband.
It was that there were many couples who refrained from making children because they can not bear only boys.
Now it is little to express the year by kanshi.
Although we can express the month by kanshi, it is also rarely used.
The day by the kanshi is not currently used a lot, but there are calendars with it.
Especially it is described in the calendar of the many daily calendar.
The day of August is discribed by the kanshi as follows.

Kanshi of August, 2018

(In the figure, the 11th is a red letter, because this is a holiday called "Mountain Day".)

(August 17, 2018)